Where do prostitutes come from?

Steve Kurtz sends me a fascinating article by Alexandru Micu, “The red light forest — Prostitution in the animal world” about what can only be described as prostitution in the animal world — or at least in three species that have been separately researched on the matter. I’ve precised the article below:

Chimps are a highly promiscuous species, but the females only in their fertile period. Not being as physically strong as the males, the females rely a great deal for extra protein on their preferred partner or, indeed, on any of the males in their group’s joint hunts. If the hunt is successful the males will share out surplus food to others, preferably females, even more so to females who closely atttach themselves closely to specifically to each male during the hunt. In return, the more successful higher-ranking males tend to have more sex — that is, are offered more sex — with the femaleswho had been more selective beforehand.

Adelie Penguins
These penguins generally pair for life and they will both prepare a nest consisting of building up a circular wall of pebbles into which an egg will be laid. If pebbles are relatively scarce then there’ll be plenty of ferocious quarrels and stealing from neighbouring nests, including those of bachelor males. Some females walking out of sight of their partners will often visit a bachelor nest, offer sex and then quickly take a pebble from his nest and return to her own nest. If she’s discrete about this she may do this.

Carib Hummingbird
In this species males and females each establish feeding territories of their own. The males, being larger and stronger than the females can easily establish larger territories which guarantees them at least enough nectar on which to survive even in periods of drought. In such periods females will fly to a male’s territory, offer sex and be allowed to feed for a while — though not too long before the males will chase her away. In this way, the species has managed to survive even during periods when food was scarce.

Waiting for the Good Life

An interesting dispute has now erupted between Apple and the EU over $14 billion in taxes that the EU says should have been paid to Ireland over the past decade. Instead, because the EU says that this shortfall is giving Apple favours, it now propose to punish Apple with a fine.

Not only has this aroused the ire of Tim Cook, the chief executive of Apple but also the US government. This is very curious because the US is supposed to be friendly to the EU. At least it was a few weeks ago when President Obama chastised Britain for contemplating leaving the EU.

Since then there’s some (French) rumour that the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), which has been in negotiations between the US and the EU for the past eight years, is now in its death throes. Perhaps the US has now given up on seeing any future for the EU. As well it might, seeing that the EU is retreating more and more into its own tariff-fortress walls with every passing year.

The dispute is “interesting” rather than significant because it is only one of many disputes that are going on between major multinational corporations and governments. The latter are constantly trying to muscle in on the activities of big business in order to increase their taxation. The former are constantly trying to remain as free as possible from depredations.

All this is to be added to the normal competition that goes on between businesses and also between governments. It’s all a reminder that once we started to leave hunter-gathering behind us 10,000 years ago, we haven’t yet managed to develop suitable organisations that make for Good Lives for all of us at work and leisure.

Bouncing out of Hinkley Point

It was fortuitous that Theresa May fell into the empty slot of becoming Prime Minister just in time to prevent the junketings that were planned for the signing of the contract for the construction of the EDF’s reactor at Hinkley Point. Had they gone ahead it would have immediately become a member of the “Too Big to Fail” brigade — just like our four grossly over-large retail banks — and kept alive with large amounts of taxpayers’ money for years to come whatever its failings and overruns.

And these — the failings and overruns — are inevitable because the technology involved is far from being fully developed, as we know from the long delays in building similar reactors in Normandy and in Finland. I thought originally — a few postings back — that May was making a gesture against the state-supported, trade union-run, semi-bankrupt, EDF.

But no, it is said that she didn’t like to see so much additional Chinese funding in the project. Will China be able to wheedle its way into our electronic security systems? Hardly. In any case, China — like Russia, America, and ourselves probably — will have expert hackers who are already doing that sort of thing as their normal official day job.

On reflection, I think she’s delayed proceedings in order to have time to look at the proposal in the round, and to consider alternatives. This is something Hinkley Point has simply not had so far. This is a multi-billion pound project which has been whisked through with highly suspicious celerity so far. We were being bounced into it.

More benefits to sex streaming

According to the Children’s Society’s latest annual Good Childhood Report 14% of 10 to 15 year-old girls in the last year or so are unhappy with their lives — predominantly on their physical attractiveness, or lack of it. This compares with an average figure of 11% in previous years. Boys have remained at 11% unhappiness.

Th increase of 3% in girls’ unhappiness may not seem much but the data is gathered from 40,000 households across the country so it’s real enough. The Children’s Society are worried enough to say “that concerted action is needed to tackle this problem”.

What is the cause? The Children’s Society think that because girls spend so much more time than boys on the social media — without specifically mentioning Facebook or Twitter! — then this is to blame. This is probably correct. Boys who spend time on the internet are more likely to be paying video games. In any case, emotional bullying among girls is twice as common as physical bullying is among boys.

If the internet is to blame for girls’ increased unhappiness then what can be done? Nothing, to be realistic. However, the figures for unhappiness clash with other data outside the purview of the Children’s Society. Boys’ unhappiness evidently increases significantly as they grow into young adulthood because their suicide rate is much greater than girls’.

The basic reason for the discrepancy is that girls’ brains develop years ahead of boys’ brains. They become adult three or four years sooner. Between 10 and 15 years of age girls are already feeling the instinctive need to have children and, therefore, the desirability to be physically attractive in order to clinch their choice of a good fellow parent when she’d found him.

All this even if, rationally, it makes more sense these days of more equal opportunities and pay to make a good career for themselves first. And here is a chink of light as to the solution. After puberty girls and boys really ought to go into separate education streams so that girls can forge ahead at greater speed than boys.

This ought to men that if girls are taking their A-levels three or four years younger than boys then they’ll have somewhat less time to spend on the internet. Also when they get to university, the boys in their (now mixed) classes will be three or four years older and — probably– feeling less pressured than they do now.

Separate streaming is inevitable one day in those countries which free up their secondary schools and competition between them drives the less efficient to the wall. It should also solve other problems such as the one that the Children’s Society is presently drawing outer attention to.

Why is there a different rule for hard drugs?

What is the difference between consumer goods and services that are illegal and those that are legal? It’s not so clear cut as might be imagined. Is it because government has a duty of care to its citizens and thus wants to protect us from harmful goods and services? Or is it because those with well-paid careers in government — principally senior civil servants and politicians — want to maximise taxation income from the sales of legal products and services that should otherwise be illegal.

It’s a bit of both according to the particular goods and services and how widespread they already are. Thus, knowing what we know now about the health dangers of too much sugar and alcohol, both should be made illegal under the duty of care. But because they were both deeply addicted to by the vast majority of the population long before big government came along, it would be politically impossible to impose punishments for offenders now. As a result, both are on sale just as normal consumer goods are — as different brands with different quality and price levels so that everybody from the richest to the poorest in the population can imbibe them and be taxed accordingly.

Not so with regard to ‘hard’ drugs such as heroin or cocaine or some of the modern ‘legal highs’. We must all be protected from them, it would seem. However, in one or more countries where one or more hard drugs are not illegal and thus where the normal phenomenon of differential price setting occurs according to quality, the evidence is that only a small minority are in danger of over-addiction — with the result of nowhere near as much ill-health or crime engendered as by alcohol consumption in this country,

The normal market should be allowed to operate as with all other consumer goods and services.

Managing without the Bank of England?

One of the liveliest minds at the Bank of England is its chief economist, Andy Haldane. He frequently sounds off with ideas you don’t normally expect from someone employed by such a bureaucratic organisation.

For example, he recently suggested that — computers being as powerful as they are — there’s no reason why we shouldn’t all have a personal account at the Bank of England — presumably doing away with high street banks altogether!

Another was that the pound — or the dollar or the euro — could adopt a block-chain technology, rather like the Bitcoin, so that each of us could make person-to-person payments directly without going through intermediate bank accounts. This was taken further by suggesting that, as most transactions are now becoming purely electronic, we might not need cash itself for very much longer.

All these have been said tongue in cheek no doubt but they cause us to think a little. His most recent statement, however, was made more seriously when he was asked about planning for retirement. Is it better to base it on property or in a pension fund? “It ought to be saving for a pension but it’s actually property every time”, he replied. “We’re building far too few houses. House prices will be heading north for decades to come.”

What Haldane could have said also is that pension funds rely on dividends on shares and high manufacturing wages but they’re both coming down, and will continue to do so as world-wide competition — already very great — intensifies.  It’s already the case that many pension funds have “terrifying shortfalls” according to Ed Monk, writing in today’s Sunday Telegraph.

However, if Haldane had said this then he would also be implying that capitalism as we have known since the 19th century is coming to an end as we enter a new type of professional services era. M’mm . . . perhaps it would be too radical to say so — the Bank of England might not even be needed in the new scheme of things and he’d be without a job!

One problem less for Theresa May

Whatever the bat-and-ball game was called in Tudor times, before the forced union of Scotland with England in 1707, it became golf in Scotland and cricket in England. Despite the contrived collegiality of ‘TeamGB’ at the Olympic Games which our new Prime Minister Theresa May made no great thing about when they returned — which David Cameron certainly would’ve — she made a point of spending yesterday at Lords watching the English cricket team play Pakistan in a one-day match.

In contrast to the jingoism of several of our recent past prime ministers and their copious use of “Great Britain” and the “United Kingdom” in their speeches, perhaps Theresa May will allow Scotland to secede as a separate nation without too much further fuss and bother. If so, she’ll be resonating with a steadily increasing number of those who see themselves as English rather than Great Britainish.

With imagination, she might also solve the perennial problem of Northern Ireland, that almost ungovernable bunch of six counties which, almost 100 years ago, Lloyd George mistakenly kept apart from the rest of Ireland when it became independent. She could call the bluff of the Protestant politicians there and give back the six counties to where they belong — the rest of the island of Ireland. Furthermore, it would solve another huge potential problem. When England leaves the EU, then there need be no danger of massive EU immigration via Ireland, an EU member, and a borderless Northern Ireland and a ferry ride to Liverpool.

Waiting for the real bus

The idea of the Elevated Bus (EB) certainly took me in. A photo of the unique Chinese invention appeared in many newspapers and on the internet. The EB, standing atop of a motorway, wide enough to straddle two lanes and carrying hundreds of passengers, could stop and start at bus stops while allowing two lanes of car traffic to run through it unimpeded. It was professionally designed, obviously money had been spent in making the prototype and it seemed a go-er.

Which is precisely what it was intended to be, offering a high rate of return in order to attract the savings of Chinese people. It now turns out to be a scam, one of the many different sorts of confidence tricks that are now being tried out on relatively naive Chinese investors. Far from being a Chinese innovation, this one was yet another example of copying the sorts of financial scams that we’ve suffered from in the last 20 or 30 years from banks, ‘independent financial advisors’ and other bodies in the financial sector.

Are the Chinese capable of innovation? They have been in the past and there’s no reason to doubt them in the future. Are the Chinese — with a self-selecting bureaucratic government — capable of innovation in modern times? That remains to be seen.

Governments still confused about culture

Burkinis — shapeless, full-bodied swim-suits worn by Muslim women — are in a quantum state in France. Like Schrodinger’s cat, a ban against burkinis exists and doesn’t exist simultaneously. Some 30 mayors of south-coast towns with attractive sea shores have announced a ban on burkinis on their beaches. Two mayors — of Nice and Cannes — have also imposed fines. However yesterday, over and above the mayors, France’s highest administrative court, the State Council, has lifted the ban. Controversy has been let loose.

Meanwhile, Nicolas Sarkozy, centre-right candidate for the French Presidency next year, swinging further to the right in order to steal the vote for extremist, Marine le Pen, has also adopted the mayors’ burkinis ban for the whole of France. He’s building on the ban against the Muslim women’s face veil which he successfully brought about five years ago when he was previously president.

So France is in a state of confusion about these cultural matters, but no more than we are in this country — nor in America where it’s colour of skin that’s the issue rather than religion. None of the governments concerned have yet realised that there’s all the difference in multicultural harmony between a mixed group working happily together to produce an income — or some other challenge — and the same mixed group during their leisure hours where a much wider range of cultural differences come into play — each to its own kind — and can badly jar one another if situated too closely.

Transforming our health?

Now that most of us are content with possessing the standard kit of status goods — house, car, furnishings, clothes, personal ornamentation, etc — of whatever form and price that suit our social level, there are still two costly items left which are — seemingly — unlimited. These are health and education. And for those without children, or whose children are grown up and independent, it is health alone.

And, whether health services are private, or a mix of private and governmental, they are the fastest growing items in all advanced countries. We are living longer, better treatments are being developed and medical knowledge — and thus expectations — are also growing at a pace. Whatever the systems that supply health services they are now buckling financially.

In this country, where most health care is governmental and paid for by taxation, the National Health Service has been buckling for years as different organisational strategies for keeping costs down have been tried and failed. The latest one, called the Sustainability and Transformation Plan (STP). although still under wraps, is due to be launched in 2017, according to Sarah Bloch-Budzier of the BBC. Basically, it involves the integration of standalone hospitals into local medical and social services.

This is bound to be a controversial — not to say, explosive — issue between the think-tanks and the political parties. Who knows whether it will truly transform and truly make health services sustainable.

Are proximanians watching us?

The discovery of Proxima B — a possible life-bearing planet — is sending many astronomers into whoops of delight. Although many other possible life-bearing planets have been discovered in recent years, Proxima B is relatively near to us, only four light years away.

It doesn’t mean being able to visit it anytime soon but it does mean that its surface can be investigated in a great deal more detail in the coming years, maybe enough to pronounce whether life does, in fact, exist there.

Given that life on planet Earth — intentionally or not — has evolved increasingly intelligent species, could the same have been happening on Proxima B? If for longer than our 4 billion years history, maybe some species of proximanians are considerably more intelligent than humans.

Perhaps proximanians have been watching us for ages, but keeping low, not wanting to reveal themselves until we’ve learned to govern ourselves a little more sensibly than we have done hitherto.

The less than jubilant trio aboard the Garibaldi

The leaders of the three largest countries in the EU — once Britain leaves — have been meeting on the Italian island of Ventotene. At the end of it they gave a press conference on the deck of the Italian aircraft carrier Giuseppe Garibaldi which was appropriate because most of what they spoke about publicly was defence.

But when in private discussion, defence would have been the least they would have spoken about. (NATO is already in existence for that purpose.) What’s much more important is how is the EU going to hold together.  Historically, currency Unions — when several countries share the same currency — have never yet held together for very long.

The reason is that one size — that is, the same value of the common currency and the same interest rate — does not fit all. A euro interest rate that suits Germany does not suit Greece. A low interest rate that would suit Greece and attract foreign investment and consequent prosperity would deprive Germany of funds and Germany would suffer in due course.

In their haste to become a political nation-state 50 years ago the founders of the EU forgot that it has to be an economic nation-state first. It needs centralised accounts and budgeting before all else. This is the fatal flaw in the EU and what Francois Hollande, Matteo Renzi and Angela Merkel would have really been talking mostly about during their hours together on the island.

They didn’t find the answer or else they’d have announced it jubilantly on board the carrier.

Having a chance of a fascinating environment around us

The Industrial Revolution (IR) is over and done with. Considering that only half a billion people are presently enjoying the full benefits of the IR then we can reasonably surmise that the world population — now expected to rise to about 11 billion before tailing off — will have to sink to about the same number of half a billion people world-wide in order to share the same standard of living.

As it is, the present world-wide recession — foxing economists everywhere as to how to end it and to stimulate growth — will continue at about the same level of economic activity as now. The fact that China — which has already reverse-engineered the West’s financial system and knows it, if anything, better than we do — is now grinding to a halt is a good indication that world trade must be somewhere near stabilisation point.

Unless our brains change — that is, become dulled due to some unknown toxin — then scientific discovery will continue, as also innovation, if not so much to extend the list of consumer goods but to make our production systems and our infrastructure vastly more efficient than they are now. This would also mean that we would be making smaller claims on the earth’s resources and that we will have a chance of having a rich and fascinating natural environment around us.

Goodbye to Choudary for a while

At long last, Anjem Choudary, 49, the radical Muslim cleric, has been convicted and found guilty, and is now awaiting sentence on 6 September. Born and bred in this country he has previously practised as a solicitor but also as a spokesman for Islam4UK, now a proscribed organisation.

A hard-line political Muslim, he is a believer in replacing British laws and institutions with Sharia law and clerical governments. He receives little support from the mass of Muslim immigrants in the country who find him as much a social embarrassment as the culturally non-Muslim English find him a dysfunctional individual whom they’d rather not have among them.

For over 20 years he has been clever enough to keep just an inch or two inside the law of sedition and racial hatred and, as we believe in individual freedom of thought in this country, as a development of our Magna Carta tradition, he was untouchable.

However, on YouTube some months ago he went too far in praising the Independent State of Iraq and Levant (Isil) and its savage ways. He also praised the actions of those terrorists responsible for 9/11 in America and 7/7 in this country. The court accepted this, and the jury confirmed this as being equivalent to encourage any of his adherents to do likewise. Quite why he allowed his self-control to slip we didn’t know but it was probably inevitable. A pity it didn’t happen years ago.

Olympic winners and freed slaves

On the day when all our papers will be praising our Olympic successes there’s also a first year report on slavery in this country.

Congratulations are due to Theresa May in her former role as Home Office Secretary for the success of the Modern Slavery Act 2015. On its first anniversary, 289 offences were prosecuted last year. The Salvation Army says that it has had a fivefold rise from looking after 400 victims a year in 2012 to 1800 last year in England and Wales, mostly referrals from the government — which is obviously encouraging more victims to come forward than ever before.

The Home Office reckon that there are between 10,000 and 13,000 victims of modern slavery in the UK, All slaves are held under threats, some against their families back home, and require a great deal of individual courage to make the first step but, without being complacent about it, the Act is obviously working in sensitising the police, social services and even the general public about the matter.

Almost half the number of slaves being brought into the country are sexually exploited, the same for cheap labour on building sites or agriculture with about one in seven brought in by traffickers for domestic servitude. They are fairly evenly scattered around the country except for London, which has twice as many ‘hidden in plain sight’ on a population basis.

Obscuring the developing brain

The Department of Education and Ofqual, the exams regulator, are repeating their King Canute act again this year. What they are trying to do is to pretend that an educability gap between adolescent girls and boys doesn’t exist — never mind the fact that more girls than boys are getting better grades at school-leaver A-levels.

Girls’ brains mature earlier than boys’ and, at 18 years of age when A levels are taken, are at least a year ahead of boys and nearer two. It’s no wonder that, since the final admission by the previous predominantly male job structure that females have the full rights to any job, girls have been entering a wider and wider band of subjects when at school.

At A-levels, girls finally caught up with boys a few years ago and have overhauled them every year since. They’ll probably continue to increase their percentage of good results marginally for another year or two yet — and then the differential will remain the same from then onwards.

The authorities have been trying to fiddle what should be natural results by decreasing the proportion of marks given to course work and increase those of the final exam. Boys, being risk-takers genetically, have been able to respond less stressfully than girls to exam enhancement and so the girls’ improvement over boys has been slowing down.

But this has been an artificial dodge. Who is actually to say which is the better way of teaching and testing the learning of a subject? If teachers had been told to design course so that many more marks were given to course-work and many fewer to final exam results then girls at 18 would have considerably more successful than boys. It’s a moot point which is the better or of learning or teaching a subject.

When equilibrium is finally reached in a year ro two then then the authorities will have to start giving up their attempts of playing King Canute — or, rather, his officials — and attempt that universities must start accepting girls at a younger age or, if both are required to enter at 18 years of age, then two different exams must be set.

Sugar going down the same policy route as alcohol

It looks as though the government is compromising over sugar in the same way as it has done over alcohol. In the latter case, the government knows that the diseases alcohol causes results in immense costs to the National Health Service, and a great deal of personal stress and also criminality besides. It also receives a great amount of taxation from its production, so it is happy to see the industry thrive and only occasionally warns the public of alcohol’s dangers.

Both sugar and alcohol are small molecules which means that, once enjoyably imbibed, they can spread into any parts of the body such as the brain or kidneys. Too much consumption of sugar or alcohol by an individual over too long a period causes damage to those and other organs.

We have no genetic defences against either of them because when we lived for millions of years on the African savannah we came across beehives or bunches of fermenting fruit on a tree quite rarely. We were able to engorge ourselves only very occasionally.

The government has just received the latest report on our vast over-consumption of sugar, the resultant obesity and its consequences of a string of other diseases. But as Jamie Oliver, the celebrity chef and many other dietary experts are saying, the government is not going anywhere near as far enough in publicising it.

It very much looks as though the government is graduall adopting the same mixed policy as for alcohol. Being positive and negative about it simultaneously in order to optimise its taxation of the sugar industry.

Getting behind the Russians and Chinese on this occasion

Now that we know China is helping President Assad of Syria more than ever with army training and advanced personal weapons in order for him reclaim his country from Isil, Al Qaeda and other Muslim terrorist troops, is it not time for the Western alliance to be sensible and let China and Russia get on with it?

No matter how nasty Assad has become, his main purpose is to solidify the government control by the secular Ba’ath Party, just as Saddam Hussein was trying to do with his Ba’ath Party in Iraq — and largely succeeding in his case before being invaded in 2003.

In tofday’s papers, the intensely poignant photo of the five year-old boy with blood streaking down half his face, rescued from the latest bombing in Aleppo — whose name we now know as Omran Daqneesh — has alerted all those statesmen in the West who only want to win the war in Syria on their own terms that they’d better start taking some practical decisions from now onwards.

The quickest practical strategy to hand is to swing behind Russia and China on this occasion even though we may not like their own particular forms of governance when at home. It is one thing for Western governments to be tolerant of Muslim immigrants in their own countries. It is quite another to be tolerant of countries in which a religious hierarchy holds the majority of their populations in subservience.

Governments of countries such where women are oppressed, where girls are subjected to vaginal mutilation and where their brightest and best young people cry out for an interesting life ahead of them, deserve to be toppled if the right opportunities come along.

Religious governments have ideologies which makes them act more cruelly than any ‘savage’ hunter-gatherer tribe has ever been.  Other opportunities will no doubt come along in countries such as Saudi Arabia, Iran and Pakistan in due course. But right now, we have Syria and we really shouldn’t be making the same mistake that we made when invading Iraq.

Whisper it quietly — “We’re already on a gold standard”

Most people are totally confused about money and have all sorts of ideas about how it’s created. Most believe it’s governments, some believe it’s central banks, others — who think they are a little more sophisticated than the average guy — think that ordinary high street banks actually create money out of thin air when they create a credit balance to a customer. (The last don’t. They create a temporary phenomenon which may or may not keep its value as real money when the loan plus interest is paid off.)

They’re all wrong. Nobody creates money — real money, that is. It creates itself. Or, rather, it is created by word of mouth and the valuation we put on different things according to one’s feelings about the standard of life at the time.

At any moment, money happens to be a consumer good with a precise intrinsic value according to what most people think it is at that moment. A small gold coin fits the bill precisely. Essentially, money is no different from a grand piano or a television set. It just so happens, however, that money is more convenient to carry around when buying or selling things.

However, it’s only convenient in principle. In practice if you had just bought a tram ride in Manchester in 1830 for a farthing — a quarter of a penny — a suitable gold coin would be so small as to be hardly visible. It would blow away if you breathed too closely. But also, if you were on your way to buy George Stephenson’s Rocket for, say £500, you couldn’t walk straight carrying the weight of the coins. Or you might easily be robbed on your way.

So this led to surrogate gold — promissory notes, banknotes, personal cheques and, today, digits in your credit or debit card or in your smartphone. The point is, however, that every single digital unit of account of your earthly monetary wealth is represented somewhere in a portion of a gold bar in your friendly central bank vault.

You don’t believe me? Are you saying that we are no longer on the gold-standard? If not then why are all central banks of advanced countries trying as hard as they can to retain gold in their vaults? On the other hand, why are China and Russia gradually buying up all the free market gold in the West and will soon, probably, be nibbling away at the public gold in the central banks?

The answer is that China and Russia, besides being the two largest miners of ‘new’ gold out of the ground, are buying as much of the ‘old’ gold as possible because they know that another monetary catastrophe will be hitting us sooner or later. They fully intend to survive by basing the yuan and the rouble on a gold standard at a sensible price.

This is to be compared with the advanced countries of the West. We are already on a gold standard — though governments pretend to their electorates that they’re not — but at an inflated banknote/digital price that is way in the sky. It will only come down to earth when the next monetary crash occurs.

By then it will strongly to be hoped that America will agree with what China has been proposing for years — a joint dollar-yuan trading currency that will be gold-backed and thus stable for all monetary purposes in future years.

Oh for a sausage! — when it’s needed

I couldn’t help chuckling over a mini-story in my paper today after deciding that there was nothing in the serious stories that I wanted to comment on right now. It concerned a German who’d complained that a BMW had been driving too fast and who then attacked it. It’s incidental how he got within arm’s reach of the car afterwards, but suffice it to say that he’d done so because he inflicted a lot of damage on the car with a foot-long sausage — as German sausages are inclined to be, of course.

A trivial event? Nothing could be more so but it reminded me of another incident many years ago. For some reason a bus had careered off the road, mounted a traffic island and broke a street gas standard at its base. Gas poured from the pipework and those of us who could hear it pouring forth kept well away for fear of an explosion.

Not so the local butcher from the other ide of the road. He issued at speed from his shop with an armful of pork sausages and proceeded to stuff them down the pipe.  The hiss of escaping gas soon subsided to nothing. We could all stand around safely and chuckle over the event while we waited for the fire brigade to come along and seal the pipe properly.

Why a sudden menopause?

Why do we — and the dolphins or orca — usually have sudden well-defined menopauses in mid-life while all other animal species do not? In other animals, fertility only fades away gradually with advancing age in the same way as youthful strength and vigour.

Ah, but how do we know that it’s sudden in dolphins? After all, with dolphins spending almost all their time under water, and only momentarily leaping above water — and only then when they are keenly interested to observe us on our boats — or are they showing off? — it is surely impossible to know.

The realisation came only recently to a long-term scientific project studying a pod of orca — of about 80 individuals — in the Pacific not far from the shore in California. After 50 years of observations — during which they knew the history of every individual — the researchers were able to confirm a suspicion they’d had fro many years. At around the age of 40 a female dolphin had either recently given birth or she had stopped giving birth altogether. There was no half-way house — it was just like us.

The reason for the sudden change was clearly shown by the fact that the females continued to lead an undiminished strenuous life afterwards. If anything, they take to keeping the more exuberant adolescent males in line and need to be even more energetic.. They also act as midwives to young females.

More than anything else, the older females lead others in their pod to feeding grounds, particularly when times were difficult and past experience is at a premium. Youn males, even when they have families of their own sometimes return to swim closely with their mother as though to absorb her skills and knowledge.

In short, post=menopausal females were absolutely necessary for the survival of their pod. If their usual source of food failed them then one or two of the very old females might remember techniques they had seen other pods using in different regions of the ocean.

Like early man, pods with entirely different cultures and call-signs in different parts of the world, could only survive by making one particular hunting method into a fine art, sometimes eating fish as small as anchovies, sometimes by attacking creatures larger than themselves.

This razor-edge existence on one oceanic region or another requiring different skills is very similar indeed as early man’s, both having to diversify in order for the species to survive as a whole. The story of the dolphins suggests very strongly that the human menopause evolved in the way that it did for the same reason as in the orca.

Refreshment from Abbey and Nikki

A touching scene played out yesterday in the Rio Olympics, all too rare in these super-competitive Games. In one of the 5,000m heats after Abbey D’Agostino and Nikki Hamblin both stumbled and fell on the track, Abbey got to her feet first but, instead of running on, put her arms around Nikki, who was still dazed, and raised her to her feet.

However, it was Abbey D’Agostino who was more seriously injured with a twisted ankle and it was then her turn to be helped. Nikki Hamblin did so by hanging back from the main group and encouraging Abbey to hobble to the end of the course.

Neither of them thus qualified for the final race but they were praised by their fellows as Abbey was taken away in a wheelchair. As an antidote to national rivalry — and which, incidentally, could never have happened in an all-male race — it was refreshing for all of us.

Ford can build self-driving cars — can it sell them?

Ford plans to be making self-driving cars for the mass market in five years’ time. Having been caught behind most other major car manufacturers in the development of the electric car — a viable prospect — Ford are now trying to catch up with driverless cars.

Whereas electric cars will require all sorts of other (attainable) research and development — laser radar sensors and long-life batteries, for example — self-driving cars depend essentially on a one-stop strategy — the successful development of error-free software, General Artificial Intelligence (GAI), that’s as versatile as the human sort. So far, this has been impossible.

It is the sudden flash of unexpected data which causes driverless cars to fail. On a motorway or a largely featureless countryside road with little data about them in the car’s computer memory such a data input can cause the car to make an inappropriate — indeed dangerous — decision sometimes.

In a city street with multiple visual points of reference already stored in the car’s computer memory, any unusual flash of new data can be immediately compared with a preponderance of pre-existing data. Thus a more ‘weighted’ relevant decision can be arrived at — rather as a committee usually takes wiser decisions than individuals.

Therefore, driverless cars could well be suitable within cities — driverless taxis or uber-cars, for example — but I can’t see them ever being popular for the daily commute from the suburbs or for freight traffic on a busy mororway.

Just about keeping the police in order

My Tory-biased morning newspaper, the Daily Telegraph, usually good for news — particularly for business news, which is why I buy it — is subject to a bit of self-censorship this morning.

In describing the death of Dalian Atkinson, a premier league soccer player of years ago, it reports that after some ttouble in the street a policemen had Tasered him he’d fallen to the ground. None of the police officers involved happened to be wearing their head-dress video cameras at the time. when they should have been, of course. All this was observed by several neighbourhood witnesses.

What the DT‘s account doesn’t mention is that Mr. Atkinson had then been kicked badly as he lay on the ground — his groans could be heard — according to one of the neighbours, Paula Quinn, albeit when appearing on BBC News. He died before arriving at hospital.

The Independent Police Complaints Commission are already investigating the case. Although it will likely find against the police — as it usually does in similar cases — it;s unlikely that the police officers concerned will be punished by their Chief Constable other than an admonishment in their records. In this way, the police are just about kept in order in this country.

Medals galore!

This country finds itself astonished, sitting second in the Gold Medal table of the Olympic Games. America, in first place with 26 gold medals, ought to have three times more on a population basis. China, in third place with the same number of gold medal as ourselves — 14 — ought to have 20 times more due to its immense population.

How has this happened? Answers include: 1. The Games are far from over yet. When all events are concluded, Britain will probably be a little further down the table; 2. Our success is probably a carry-over from the large government and lottery funds invested in athletic training prior to the 2012 London Games; 3. Statistical happenstance, rather like getting several heads in a row when tossing a coin.

But even those answers seem insufficient somehow. There’s also a background factor of culture — almost impossible to describe. Olympic gold medals are highly correlated with Nobel gold medals. It’s something to do with creativity — and, after all, almost all the sports in the Games were first developed in England in the 19th century whether by the social elite — e.g. skiing — or from the working class — e.g. soccer.

If it’s a matter of culture more than anything else then we in this country had better hang onto to its subtleties — whatever they may be. We’ll not need them so much for future Olympic gold medals but more for maintaining a high degree of innovation vis-a-vis our competitors in the advanced countries and thus continuing to be able to trade with China which is becoming a monopolistic manufacturer of all physical goods.

At least the social elite will survive

Arthur Cordell has sent me an article in the Wall Street Journal (11 August), “How Global Elites Forsake Their Countrymen”, by Peggy Noonan which makes the case that in the advanced countries a population separation is happening. This is no surprise to me — nor any regular readers of this website — because it’s a theme that I’m constantly discussing.

But the phenomenon is evidently a mystery to Peggy Noonan as the sub-heading of her article shows — “Those in power see people at the bottom as aliens whose bizarre emotions they must try to manage”. Nor does she attempt to discuss — or even to guess — why a population separation exists or what may happen to it in due course.

The separation used to caused by the ownership of land or not. Since the industrial revolution, it has been whether you are sufficiently educated or not. If you are, then you are able to join the new social elite which came along since 1785, when cotton spinning left the village home and went into the city factory as an automated machine.

And if you are a member of the social elite — which is a financial and investment elite also, of course — you will be remaining in charge of instituting yet more automation from year to year until almost all jobs done by the majority of the population requiring personal effort can disappear.

And what may happen to the present population divide? The majority part will continue in its present trend towards voluntary extinction as it has been for 50 years in Europe. The fertility rate is always subject to what parents design it to be — whether in hunter-gatherer or in modern times — so that the number of their children doesn’t compromise their own enjoyment of life.

So Peggy Noonan needn’t worry too much. The social elite part of the human species will survive — at least the 1785 economic shock when it’s fully played out.

Theresa May’s first mistake

Only a month since their appointment, two of our more prominent Ministers are into a turf war. Since it’s now resulted in a copy letter to Theresa May — and presumably leaked to the media — it would seem to be a more bitter dispute than usual requiring her judgement.

It’s between Boris Johnson, Foreign Secretary and Liam Fox, Minister for International Trade — particularly of the larger repertoire of trade Britain will need when we leave the EU. Apparently there’s a bunch of economists within the Foreign Office and Fox wants them to transfer to his department. Johnson reuses to let them go. So there we are, Johnson and Fox are at each other’s throats just like a pair of rutting stags.

This power squabble is one of the many indulgences of Westminster politicians which angers the electorate. In this case, it’s not that ordinary people are unaware of personal ambition. There’s nothing wrong with it as such and, after all, most of the electorate spend up to the hilt on status goods in order to satisfy their own social aspirations. But politicians are elected precisely to be different — to carry out their promises to serve their constituents first and foremost — not to engage in personal feuds.

The Prime Minister will no doubt sort this out one way or another but she can’t afford to lose her own political capital by sacking both of them. But she should never have raised either of these two to ministerial positions from what has been clearly known of their personalities and past behaviour. Appointing them has been a mistake. How serious it might turn out to be in due course remains to be seen.

Gene-editing in the corridors of power

Every mother wants intelligent, healthy children. The technique by which this will be accomplished in future years is gene-editing. In addition, even though at a very early stage of development, gene-editing is already being used for treating several genetically-linked diseases that strike during childhood and at any time into middle life.

Indeed, it’s likely to become the greatest economic growth sector of any so far as the Biological Revolution supersedes the Industrial one before it. It is likely to become a major item in many consumers’ lifetime spending. Unlike the Industrial Revolution, the Biological one will have no consequences of widespread pollution, destruction of the natural environment and the extinction of thousands of animal species.

Since 1979, China has lifted itself up by its bootstraps by copying all available technologies of the West. You can’t blame the country for that. America did the same for European inventions in the 18th and 19th centuries. However, for the first time in the case of gene-editing, China has hauled itself right up to the leading edge of gene-editing research — and even applications on human foetuses.

Although normally regarded as more highly regulatory than the ‘liberal’ countries of the West, China’s culture is more ethically relaxed in the area of human gene-editing. There are some legal restrictions but not as many as in most European countries or America. In this regard, China and this country are almost on a par.

G Owen Schaefer, of the National University of Singapore has rung the tocsin in The Conversation web-site to spread the word more widely but you can be certain that, because of its economic implications, the topic of gene-editing and its future funding and development is being given serious consideration in the highest government circles in Europe and America.

Where will governments — and their people — go next?

An Olympic gold medal — the ultimate personal ornament — is not really made of gold — only gold-plated — and the Olympic Games is not really about sport — only commercial opportunism for some and sentimentalised nationalism for many. For governments that subsidise their athletes — and that’s pretty well all of them — the Olympic Games are proxy warfare.

However, shining through it all from many, if not most, young people are the good qualities which make them so attractive — enthusiasm, generosity and, usually, intensity of purpose which has enabled them to spend years in hard training to perfect their skills.

Young adults– as most of them are — also reflect a deep instinct of the human species — a great psychological need to meet and socialize in small groups. It is this instinctive quality that enables governments so easily to scale up the loyalty of small groups into full-blown nationalism.

Or at least young adults used to be manipulable — say at the time of the First World War in 1914 when millions of volunteers in several European countries went to war and died ‘for their country’. There were microscopically few volunteers when the Second World War came along in 1939.

Today, unless one’s country is actually being invaded, there are no volunteers and governments are even unable to recruit anywhere near enough full-time soldiers and sailors and pilots. The Sea Lords, for example, are dreadfully worried how they’re going to find the three thousand personnel required for the two colossal aircraft carriers.

Young people, as well as the Sea Lords, are fully aware that carriers are highly vulnerable to submarine attack no matter how well they try to protect the vessels electronically.

But returning to the Olympic Games, most young people today are nowhere as interested in active sport as they used to be. They’re not watching the Games on the television channels, but spend their time chatting with one another or playing video games on their smartphones.

The above applies to the young people in the approximate total population of 1 billion in the advanced countries. In the less advanced countries, smartphones are scarcer — at present! — but not scarce enough for them not to be aware of the huge gulf in the way of life of the advanced countries and their own.

They’re not watching the Olympic Games but wondering how to migrate to countries that have jobs or their families are saving up hard to pay traffickers. Just how the Games are going to change — or even die out — in future years is impossible to say.

The whole world situation is a problematique that’s far too complex for us to discern what may happen — still less for nation-state governments to imagine that the ‘certainties’ and institutions on which they presently rely can continue for much longer.

Democracy is Dead ! — Long Live Democracy !

Vote rigging has been going on in this country for many years in quite a number of local authority elections and even a few marginal (Labour) parliamentary seats. It came into being as one of the consequences of mass immigration at the bequest of employers of cheap labour during Tony Blair’s administration in the 1990s. Postal voting fraud by Pakistanis and Bangladeshis took place on a scale that was scarcely imagined previously.

From some of the unusual results in the country in recent elections, anybody with eyes to see knew what was going on but only in one or two flagrant cases — such as Tower Hamlets in London — was the Electoral Commission (EC) brought to bear on the problem.

Unfortunately, such was the pressure of political correctness — and coming down from a high level — that even the EC gave five-star ratings even to the worst cases and, many senior police officers were quietly prevented from prosecuting — “if you know what is good for your future career”.

Sir Eric Pickles, appointed by David Cameron some three years ago, yesterday delivered a hard-hitting report with 50 recommendations which seem to cover most of the weakness during election times.

The irony is that as the present one-person-one-vote system is being made procedurally perfect, it is unable to cope with a modern economy, increasingly fragmenting into a multitude of protective practices, each looking after their own interests — including politicians (of left and right) themselves. We need totally new methods of selecting governments.

Has cooking been necessary for our brains?

The following is a ScienceDaily precis of a paper originally written by a research team at Vanderbilt University and published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Take little notice of the title. It is much more interesting — and surprising — later when it gets onto cooking.

Total number of neurons — not enlarged prefrontal region — hallmark of human brain

David Salisbury

A new scientific study puts the final nail in the coffin of a long-standing theory to explain human’s remarkable cognitive abilities: that human evolution involved the selective expansion of the brain’s prefrontal cortex.

It does so by determining that the prefrontal region of the brain which orchestrates abstract thinking, complex planning and decision making contains the same proportion of neurons and fills the same relative volume in non-human primates as it does in humans.

“People need to drop the idea that the human brain is exceptional,” said Vanderbilt University neuroscientist Suzana Herculano-Houzel, who directed the study. “Our brain is basically a primate brain. Because it is the largest primate brain, it does have one distinctive feature: It has the highest number of cortical neurons of any primate. Humans have 16 billion compared with 9 billion in gorillas and orangutans and six-to-seven billion in chimpanzees. It is remarkable, but it is not exceptional.”

In her popular science book The Human Advantage: A New Understanding of How Our Brain Became Remarkable, Herculano-Houzel explains how human brains grew so large, even larger than the brains of gorillas and orangutans, whose bodies are larger than ours. Her answer is surprisingly simple. It is the invention of cooking.

Cooking allowed early humans to overcome the energetic barrier that limits the size of the brains of other primates, she has determined. However, when the human brains grew larger they maintained the basic structure of the primate brain, including the size of the prefrontal cortex, her latest study has found.

The comparison of the relative size of the prefrontal region in primate brains is described in a paper titled “No relative expansion of the number of prefrontal neurons in primate and human evolution” by Herculano-Houzel and postdoctoral fellow Mariana Gabi published online this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences early edition.

The researchers compared the brains of seven non-human primates of varying sizes — pig-tailed and crab-eating macaques, baboon, marmoset, galago, owl monkey and capuchin — with the human brain. They found that both the human and non-human primates devote about 8 percent of their neurons to the prefrontal region of the cortex.

In addition, they determined that volumes of human prefrontal gray and white matter match the expected volumes for the number of neurons and other cells in the white matter when compared to other primates.

Cooking allowed us to overcome an energetic barrier that restricts the size of the brains of other primates.””Our big brains are very costly. They use 25 percent of all the energy the body needs each day,” Herculano-Houzel said. “Cooking allowed us to overcome an energetic barrier that restricts the size of the brains of other primates.”

Take the case of the gorilla. It must spend at least eight hours per day foraging and eating to support its body and brain. The human brain is three times larger than that of the gorilla. If a gorilla had a brain the size of a human, it would have to spend an additional one and a half hours a day finding food.

So there simply aren’t enough hours in the day for the gorilla to support a bigger brain. Likewise, if humans ate like any other primate, we would have to spend nine and a half hours per day eating — every single day.

That’s where cooking comes in. “By cooking, I mean cutting, dicing, smashing-all types of food preparation,” Herculano-Houzel said. “Take a single carrot. If you eat it raw, it will take 10 to 15 minutes of vigorous chewing and your digestive system will only capture about one third of the calories. But, if you cut the carrot up and cook it for a few minutes, it takes only a few minutes to consume and your body gets 100 percent of the calories.”

The origin of cooking, as Herculano-Houzel defines it, dates back about 2.5 million years ago with the development of the first stone tools. Among other things, these stone tools were man’s first food processors, allowing our ancestors to slice and dice and mash their food. Evidence for the controlled use of fire appears about 400,000 years ago.

“Those early tool makers had brains about the same size as gorillas. But, beginning about 1.8 million years ago, the brains of our ancestors began growing steadily, tripling in size over the next 1.5 million years,” said Herculano-Houzel.

“It’s amazing that something we now take for granted, cooking, was such a transformational technology which gave us the big brains that have made us the only species to study ourselves and to generate knowledge that transcends what was observed first-hand; to tamper with itself, fixing imperfections with the likes of glasses, implants and surgery and thus changing the odds of natural selection; and to modify its environment so extensively (for better and for worse), extending its habitat to improbable locations.”

Two demagogues with a spark of truth in each

The Labour Party in England and the Republican Party in America are both in a state of confusion. One is led by a demagogue by accident, the other by a demagogue by conviction, but both largely the result of negligence by their respective political parties.

Strangely, although Jeremey Corbyn and Donald Trump are both replete with ideas of the last century but one — albeit opposite ones! — they have both talked of policies which are relevant today but ignored even by the Great and the Good of both of their parties.

Corbyn speaks of the plight of the poor. But perhaps not the poor so much as the plight of children who are born into poor families. Their chances of fulfilling their abilities and rising to whatever social level they deserve — social mobility — are worse today than they were a hundred years ago. And the more that automation proceeds, the more their fate will be compounded as the middling-paid jobs continue to be hollowed out.

Trump speaks of a necessary make-over of the tax system, but also of the monetary chaos by which currency exchanges stagger on in fits and starts and from which vast debts build up in the advanced governments of the world, such as America, while other governments, such as China — with at least one of its ‘pupils’, Vietnam — accrue surpluses.

The quiet sun may cause global cooling, says Valentina Zharkova

“Recent research by Professor Valentina Zharkova and colleagues at Northumbria University has shed new light on the inner workings of the Sun. If correct, this new discovery means that future solar cycles and variations in the Sun’s activity can be predicted more accurately.

“The research suggests that the next three solar cycles will see solar activity reduce significantly into the middle of the century, producing conditions similar to those last seen in the 1700s – during the Maunder Minimum. [KH — When the River Thames use to freeze over every winter sufficient to bear the weight of horses and showground equipment.]

“This may have implications for temperatures here on Earth. Future solar cycles will serve as a test of the astrophysicists’ work, but some climate scientists have not welcomed the research and even tried to suppress the new findings.” (Global Warming Policy Forum, 9 August 2016)

“Some [critics] were welcoming and discussing. But some of them were quite — I would say — pushy. They were trying to actually silence us. Some of them contacted the Royal Astronomical Society, demanding, behind our back, that they withdraw our press release. The Royal Astronomical Society replied to them and said, ‘Look, this is the work by the scientists who we support, please discuss this with them.’ ” (Professor Valentina Zharkova, 9 August 2016) [KH —Prof Zharkova is, in fact, highly regarded by the RAS and has alreaey recived one of its top research awards.]

“The sun is in good shape and has a ‘healthy heartbeat’ which will last at least another five billion years, says Prof Valentina Zharkova, of Northumbria University. Professor Zharkova says this regular heartbeat of the sun is subject to predictable fluctuations of its magnetic field, and over the next few years as it enters a lull temperatures, here on earth, will plummet.

“Prof Zharkova says her research is ‘the first serious prediction of a reduction of solar activity and an upcoming Maunder Minimum that might affect human lives’. Her predictions fly in the face of much of what is being said and written about global temperatures.

“Prof Zharkova says: “When it comes to controlling the earth’s temperature, the sun trumps the work of mankind infinitesimally.” She added: “How this reduction of temperature will be partially offset by global warming and increasing temperatures caused by the technological progress of human civilization remains to be seen.” ” — Peter McCusker, Newcastle Chronicle, 13 July 2016

Avoiding an even bigger governmental mess

There’s a huge difference between what the typical English working person wanted 100 years ago and now. It was limited then, it is limitless now. A century ago, he or she wanted the status goods — house, car, furnishings, good clothes, ornaments, holidays that, previously, only royalty and the aristocracy could afford.

Everybody spent as much as they could possibly afford on these in order to claim his role within the social group in which he worked or found comfortable in his leisure hours.

By about 1990, there were no more status goods left. What remained, however, were those goods on which the individual depended even more fundamentally than status goods for his rank order in society. Indeed, society as a whole utterly depended on them. These are education and health. Neither of these could be mass produced at various appropriate price levels according to the different social classes.

But today, since the Biological Revolution in 1953 — the demonstration of the structure of DNA — thus overlapping with the decline of the Industrial revolution — the life sciences have already taken as great leaps forward in the 21st century as the physical sciences did in the 20th century.

And, another difference between now and then, is that, today, due to the Internet, everybody in the advanced countries is fully aware of what could be available by way of superb education and health care — if only the politics could be got right.

There are no limits in these consumer demands. Unless governments and their attendant politicians learn to define their functions much more carefully in the coming years — avoid what they shouldn’t be doing and attend that which they should be doing more of — then they and their electorates are going to get into an even bigger mess than they are already in.

Reaching limits

“Losing its oomph !” (7 August) produced an interesting exchange between Steven Kurtz and Atanu Dey. I was tempted to get involved but it will be better for them to continue — if they want — between themselves.

Just as we are a pecking-order species at social levels so we are at national levels and, in particular, at innovation levels. According to Isaac Newton’s observation, genius — that is, leading edge scientific research these days — stands on the shoulders of these before them — in that particular culture.

Discoveries — the greatest ones usually being serendipitous — and subsequent innovation doesn’t arise anywhere on earth, only in those cultures that are already ahead and prepared for the next step forward.

This is where so many economists have got it completely wrong. Get all the main political institutions right, like those in the advanced countries — so-called democracy being the main one mentioned — and limitless economic growth is sure to follow. This is not so, as the history of so many countries in the post-war years have shown us.

Countries can get so far along ‘economic development’ — usually just by copying — but then become trapped because they have no innovations of their own to follow up.

A double reason to remove Trump

On ZeroHedge today we have the following item — “As the presidential campaign enters its final stages, probing questions have emerged about the health condition of Hillary Clinton.

“Hillary’s bizarre, erratic behavior on the campaign trail (culminating with last week’s perplexing “short-circuit” comment) has left many wondering whether she is seriously ill. Hillary has at multiple times had convulsions that appear to be seizures on camera, including a series of seemingly inexplicable coughing fits.”

It would not be surprising if Hilary Clinton’s health starts to fail during the presidential campaign. After all, she’s 69 and no other candidate in American history has put so much effort into being elected. Also, even though her vote will probably hold up well — and above Trump’s — her low popularity rating must be psychologically debilitating when she’s given the most professional performances over the years.

But what if her health fails completely between now and November? Trump will then be a walk-in. There are rumours already that Trump must somehow be ditched. Hillary’s health doubles the reason why the Republicans will have to ct quickly if they’re going to act at all.

Why America doesn’t need Donald Trump

Because we are constantly evolving — that is, adapting to new circumstances — geneticists are able to backtrack along the DNAs in the bones of dead people in the past and find out the approximate dates when we acquired new variations, or mutations, in our genes. Thus, for example, we in Europe are now able to say when milk-intolerant hunter-gatherers began to be dominated by milk-tolerant farmers migrating from the Middle East some 40,000 years ago and then, a few thousand years later, by a wave of migrants from central Asia.

Genes, however, are only a small part of our DNA. Each of our 23 chromosomes can therefore be likened to a piece of string about two miles long with knots, representing genes, every metre or two. The material in between the genes was, until recently, called “junk DNA” because it was thought to be of no importance. It is, however, also evolving and, as there is about 50 times more of it than the DNA of genes themselves, then it is recently being able to give us more accurate datings when different human races coalesced.

Thus, in the coming years, each one of us will be able to trace our individual history back to even quite small groups once they had migrated out of Africa about 60,000 years go and migrated all over the world. We’ll also begin to understand why some mutations — but not others — became permanent additions to our genes according to quite different circumstances humans had to adapt to in different parts of the world.

The most important mutations of all are those which lead to more intelligence. This has applied all the way through our ancestry and, given the increasingly skilled specialisations necessary for survival today — individually and cultural — more than ever. High intelligence depends not so much on specific genes — there are far too many of them — but on reducing the number of deleterious genes that we also have in our DNA.

So far this is achieved for a small number of people by IVF treatment but in the last year or two a brand new technique — gene-editing — has come on the scene whereby precise segments of harmful material can be chopped out of an individual’s DNA and replaced with healthy gene variations.

For the first time since China entered the world trading market in 1979, the Chinese are now at the forefront of scientific research in one area. This is gene-editing. Editing one’s own and one’s children’s genes could be the greatest consumer growth market there has been so for.

If the Republican Party in America wants to follow Donald Trump’s policy of isolating China with prohibitively high tariffs then it will be even more idiotic than not having excluded him as a candidate in the first place — an opportunity that the Founding Fathers of America gave them when the Constitution was carefully framed.

Will the Olympic Games last forever?

Today, Russian athletes hoping to take part in the Rio 2016 Paralympics have been banned following the doping scandal in Russia. It’ll be tough on those — a small minority? — most of them? — who haven’t been taking drugs, but it will be a strong message to ordinary Russians that normal feelings about fair play are still important in the outside world.

This is in complete contrast to the confused way that the International Olympic Committee dealt with the non-handicapped athletes. Yes, the track and field competitors remain outlawed, but all the rest were allowed back in again whatever their past records.

It’s really an unintended confession that doping will never be fully wiped out for reasons of either individual earnings for top performers or national pride. Or will the great jamboree fall out of favour first? It is certainly very curious that, apart from the small minority who actually take part, most young people seem to be increasingly indifferent to sport.

Losing its oomph !

Even the New York Times is now waking up, it would seem. More exactly perhaps, identifying the dilemma of the economic doldrums sweeping right across the advanced countries of the world. In a thorough going article, “We’re in a low-growth world. How did we get here?”, it even hints that it may supply a solution. But then, at the end, it doesn’t, with a penultimate sentence ” . . . there’s a lot we don’t know about the economic future”. You can’t get lamer than that!

The author has evidently not been reading this blog! Had he or she done so then it would have dawned that, once the average person is able to possess all the goods and enjoy all the services that only royalty could in times past, then there are no more status items to save and work hard for. The industrial revolution lost its oomph at around 1990.

Getting a move on with shale gas

It astonishes me that the Green Party, which is against additional man-made carbon dioxide, should also be against the fracking of shale gas. Gas-fired power stations produce electricity with half the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide as a by-product than either oil- or coal-fired power stations.

That being so, our national strategy ought to be to tap into the tremendous shale rock resources that lie beneath our feet as soon as possible. Given that greater recovery rates are being developed constantly, that a site with multiple wells need only take up two or three acres, and that our birth rate will continue to decline for a considerable time yet — due to shortage of well-paid jobs for everyone — then we should have at least 200 or 300 years’ supply of energy, or even longer, ahead of us with atmospheric carbon dioxide on a downward trend..

That being so, the payment of additional bribes to local home dwellers of proposed sites is an unfortunate, but reasonable, cost to bear, in order to get the new industry started without years more of delay.

Getting the Isle of Wight on its feet

David Hoare, the Chairman of Ofsted (the UK schools inspection agency) was shopped by a fellow dinner guest as describing the Isle of Wight — situated just off the southern coast — as: ” . . . an inbred poor white ghetto.” .

He apologised later. He hadn’t said the words in public. He describes his job as “Fantastic. I love what I’m doing;”. And, with a population of 140,000 there’s no chance of inbreeding so he couldn’t have meant it strictly. He meant it as a joke, probably . . . after a glass or two of wine.

But unfortunately, with the Isle of Wight’s highly talented young people each generation tending to leave. the island is highly likely to be culturally inbred. With high unemployment, thus not being able to attract talented young people, in turn, from the mainland, then its ideas will tend to fossilize. Undoubtedly, this is why its local authority batch of state secondary schools is the second worst n the country, and the third worst at primary school level.

There’s no hope for the Isle of Wight’s children until, somehow, some highly talented teachers can be attracted there. Why doesn’t our Minister for Education do for the Isle of Wight what Deng Xiaoping did for China in 1979 when reviving the country? Establish some Free Enterprise zones where there’s no possible interference from the UK’s Education Department in Whitehall.

It’s all to do with testosterone

The latest farce to hit the Child Sex Abuse Inquiry — as serious an investigation as can be imagined — is the resignation of its third chairman within two years. The first was retired judge Butler-Sloss in July 2014, the second was City lawyer Fiona Woolf in august 2014 and the latest one, as of yesterday, is Dame Lowell Goddard, a former judge in New Zealand.

The first two resigned after an outcry from the victims that they were too closely related to the social elite. Because the upper classes are as much implicated in sexual abuse of children quite as much as — if not more than — the ordinary male then the civil service had to look for a third candidate quite outside the British social system. The search was successful, but Dame Goddard has now suddenly resigned — without giving three months’ notice, which her contract obliged her to.

Nobody yet knows why. Perhaps she wasn’t up to a ferociously detailed job — as some are claiming — perhaps she was, simply, lonely, not yet having had the time to find a new social circle in this country. Anyhow, because she had been spending months away in Australia — some say with relatives and friends — this caused the most recent outcry.

Victims, who have been waiting for years to have their cases, and their abusers, made public, are now suggesting that there are several who would make excellent chairmen — that is, not frightened of questioning upper class individuals when necessary.

And this will be necessary from time to time because, physiologically, the more socially and politically powerful an individual is the more that testosterone naturally — automatically — flows in his blood stream. And we know where that leads.

Until the next currency collapse

The announcement today, by dropping the Bank of England’s basic rate from 05% to 0.25% the UK government — Theresa May’s brand new Cabinet and the Treasury Department — means that they must be really worried that the economy is about to nosedive. The BoE has also been told to do what all the main currency blocs — China, Japan, America and the European Union — are doing . . . more Quantitative Easing. And then there’s an extra dodge of our own — a scheme to force the banks to pass on lower interest rates to households and businesses.

All this is — again — kicking the can down the road. It’s avoiding at all costs the continuation of a mild deflation which could have brought about the healthy bankruptcy of insolvent businesses all by itself in due course. It’s also avoiding the physical separation of the four big high street banks into say, a dozen or more regional banks as well as avoiding hiving off their speculative trading into true investment banks.

So on we go — plunging ahead into the mist of not bringing about a stable world trading currency and thus allowing the present massive imbalances of debt between countries and within them, to build up further. Until the next currency collapse.

A pantomime with a cast of 800

When David Cameron became Prime Minister six years ago, when the House of Lords had approaching 700 members, he said would reform the House of Lords — something people have been crying out for years — and, in particular, reduce the numbers substantially. Some suggested 250, nobody thought there should be more than 500.

Today there are 798 Lords of the Realm. In his retirement list of nominations Cameron is proposing another 40! Will this pantomime never end? This country is becoming more ceremonial and more ridiculous with every passing year.

Do universities have a future?

Every year hundreds of thousands of university students build up stupendous personal debts for tuition fees and accommodation because they — and their parents — were brainwashed into believing that, once they had their degree, they would easily be able to pay them back because they would earn substantially more for the rest of their lives.

According to Margaret Hodge, Minister for Higher Education, in 2002, the typical degree would yield a return of £400,000 in additional earnings over a lifetime. It was obvious within a few years that this was wildly wrong. In an effort to justify the original figure in 2013, the successor department, the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) investigated the matter in 2013 arrived at an average premium of just £168,000 for men and £252,000 for women.

A more independent analysis carried out by the Institute for Economic Affairs came to the view that although the £400,000 premium might well be earned by medical and dentistry graduates everybody else’s was a long way under — and some were even negative! In short, in many jobs — even so-called ‘professions’ — graduates would be worse off over a lifetime than those who had never been to university.

So . . . what’s to be done? Two things can be said for certain. One is that a future government is going to have to stop treating universities as degree mills. The other is that universities are going to have to change their reason for existence and their way of doing things out of all recognition if they want to survive.

The laws of physics have reminded us — let’s get used to it

Is 8,000 years a long enough period in which emperors, kings and aristocrats could have discovered all the goods and services that are capable of being used and enjoyed?

If so, then the typical middle-class person in one of the dozen advanced countries can’t reasonably expect any more new goods and services. If so, he now has as settled and as idiosyncratic way of life in an urban or suburban environment as Inuits in their igloos living above the Arctic Circle or the hunter-gatherer Sans in the Kalahari Desert.

If so, the industrial revolution must now be considered as having spluttered to its end. It never could have been extended to all 200 of the countries of the world without the injection of at least four or five times the energy that is presently being injected — whether from fossil fuels or renewables.

The industrial revolution was already spluttering to its end in the 1980s when the financial sector pushed forward all manner of new forms of credit to get people in the advanced countries to consumer all the more. The attempt failed and economists have been ‘rewarded’ ever since by the 2008 Crisis — from which they have no solution of robust economic revival.

It was, if you like, a reminder by the laws of physics that unless you can magnify enormously the amount of energy going into the economic system then it has to stabilize some time at some level.